Papers – Published and Drafts

Several of my academic pieces have been published with an online journal, Student Pulse, which has since been renamed Inquiries Journal. These were mostly undergraduate papers from Rutgers University-Camden with one graduate paper from University College of London.

  1. The Negotiations at Brest-Litovsk: New York Times Coverage from January 1st to 12th, 1918
    The New York Times coverage of negotiations at Brest-Litovsk between January 1 and January 12, 1918, reflected the newspaper’s preoccupation with Germany during wartime and her ulterior motives. It also evinced skepticism about the Bolsheviks’ sincerity in their claims about not wanting a separate peace. The Times published articles that spoke to the German desire for annexations on the Eastern Front, particularly in Poland, as well as articles that insinuated Germany’s attempt to negotiate with the Bolsheviks was designed to split the Entente. In addition, these articles expressed doubt about the Bolsheviks’ overall honesty during negotiations, as if their delegates were always going to obtain a separate peace, despite claims to refuse any terms that conflicted with their peace without annexations or indemnities formula.
  2. Featured ArticleThe Legacy of International Cooperation at the Nuremberg Trials (2011)
    The Allied powers were already debating the punishment of the Axis leadership—German and Japanese—before the war had concluded. Tensions between leaders of Great Britain, France, the United States and the Soviet Union complicated this process at every turn, but despite this, the trial at Nuremberg emerged as an important precedent in international law and human rights.
  3. Before the Fall: Calls for Reform Prior to the French Revolution (2012)
    Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot wrote, “Because it takes a long time before we are convinced of their inutility, foundations have sometimes become positively harmful before they have even been suspected of being useless.”1 One could apply this reasoning to the French monarchy in the late 18th century, particularly in the reigns of Louis XV and his grandson, Louis XVI, neither of whom possessed the sheer intimidating will of Louis XIV. They still retained the traditional powers of the French monarch, but not the literal authority required to rule. They nettled with their Parlements and their nobles until the situation exploded in 1789, resulting in the bloody French . The calls for reform began long before the French Revolution, but were deliberately stalled by the upper classes that refused to countenance any change in the ancienne regime and its institutions.
  4. What was the Influence of Cosmopolitan Law on the Permanent Court of International Justice? (2015)
    At the heart of many contemporary international organizations, such as the United Nations, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) and the International Criminal Court (ICC), the theory underpinning cosmopolitan law represents the ideal they strive to achieve in a world plagued with war, conflict, and genocide. Before the UN, the ICJ and the ICC, the League of Nations established the Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ)—not as a utopian realization of Immanuel Kant’s perpetual peace, but as a tool for European nations to seek rational resolutions to disputes arising from international relations.


Unpublished Dissertations and Theses

  1. The Banco Nacional and the Dominican Customs Receivership: Dollar Diplomacy in the Dominican Republic, 1911-1914 (2016)  An unpublished thesis written for Rutgers Graduate School. I am in the process of revising for publication in a scholarly journal. No abstract or summary available.